...UNDERSTANDPERSON-CENTREDAPPROACHES IN ADULTSOCIALCARESETTINGS 1.1 DESCRIBE PERSONCENTREDAPPROACHESPerson-centred is about providing care and support that is centred or focused on the individual and their needs. We are all individual and just because two people might have the same medical condition, for example, Dementia, it doesn’t mean that they require the same care and support. You will need to develop a clear understanding about the individuals you are working with. This includes their needs, their culture, their means of communication, their likes and dislikes, their family and other professionals’ involvement so you can promote and provide personcentredcare and support. There are eight personcentred values that support person-centredcare and support. These are:- 1. Individuality 2. Independence 3. Privacy 4. Choice 5. Dignity 6. Respect 7. Rights 8. Partnership 1.2 EXPLAIN WHY PERSON-CENTRED VALUES MUST INFLUENCE ALL ASPECTS OF SOCIALCARE WORK If you ask your family, friends and neighbours, you would get lots of different answers and this will demonstrate...
The first step is to identify an appropriate case study that has more than one “answer.” For example, I describe below a case study I use in my course.
Students then work through the case study and submit their responses.
After students have finished the case study, we then go over the multi-dimensional aspects of the case study, for example that different people are going to approach the case differently and would have different responses. For example, some people have a grounding in Western religion and their responses may include religious or spiritual answers and many will have personal experiences that will color their responses.
We then discuss how responses can look different, depending on the personal experiences and ethical framework each person uses to come to their case study response. There are many philosophers that have described ethical frameworks, but for my purposes, I stick to six classical ways of thinking (3, 4) (Table 1).
Once students understand the six general ethical frameworks, they work back through their case study to determine which ethical thinking pattern(s) guided their answer.
After students have evaluated their ethical thinking and documented their answer, we discuss the case in small groups to determine which framework each student used. Students then have the opportunity to change their response to the case study and document how understanding ethical thinking changed it. An extension of this assignment, which we have not yet tried is to then ask students to deliberately rework the case through a different ethical framework to see how their responses change.
A final component of my class is then for groups to develop their own short case study, applying what they have learned in the previous work.
Student colleagues then work through the case studies designed by their peers, being aware of the ethical frameworks and reporting their response to the case study and what ethical framework(s) they used when working through the case study.
As a case study, students read the Discover Article, “Cancer’s Wandering Gene,” (6) and then answer the following questions:
In the general Jewish population, Tay-Sachs screening programs were set up to determine carriers and then monitor pregnancies when two carriers were to have a baby. Fetuses with Tay-Sachs were identified and aborted to bring down Tay-Sachs births. American Jews were tested as to their carrier status and could make decisions about their reproductive needs. This was in line with what Dr. Harry Ostrer believed, that people had a right to their genetic information and could make their own decisions.
Alternatively, in the Orthodox community, Rabbi Josef Ekstein was testing people and not giving them their information, as he didn’t want his community to be burdened with the (often false) stigmatization of carrier status. People in that community were tested anonymously and then would call to a center to determine if their choice of mate was compatible, never knowing who was a carrier of what disorder.
Debate the pros and cons of each method. Which method is “better” and why? Or are both appropriate for the populations served?
Ethical component: In your answer to the case study about Tay Sachs, which single ethical framework or combination did you favor? Now that you have read different ethical theories and what they mean, does this change your answer to the case studies? Why or why not?
Design your own case study around an ethical issue in genetics. See Table 2 for ideas of topics.
Topic ideas for writing assignment.