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Essay About Classical Conditioning Definition

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  • Four Types Of Learning

    970 words

    The four types of learning are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning, and cognitive learning. In this paper I will give you an overview on each type of learning and examples of each. Classical Conditioning is the first part of conditioning discovered by Ivan Pillow in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus. It is the most primitive of learning. Classical Conditioning consist of conditional and unconditional stimulus and cond...
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  • Unconditioned Stimulus Classical Conditioning

    691 words

    From the outside it almost seems as if he is shying away from the world. Always keeping to himself and very seldom is found leaving his residence. Not shying away from the world in fear, but rather in an insecure manner. He seems to live in his own world, not caring about what is going on around him or what he is missing out on. He lives according to his standards and rarely lets his peers influence him. Once you have the chance to get to know him, your perception of him changes. Though from the...
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  • Classical Operant And Observational Conditioning

    764 words

    Classical, operant, and observational are all types of conditioning and learning. Conditioning, in psychology, is causing an organism to exhibit a specific response to a stimulus. A stimulus is anything that Classical conditioning is a form of learning, in which a reflexive or automatic response transfers from one stimulus to another. For instance, a person who has had painful experiences at the dentists office may become fearful at just the sight of the dentists office building. Fear, a natural...
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  • Unconditioned Stimulus Operant Conditioning

    653 words

    What I want to do is train my dog to shake with either paw upon request. If I say right I want him to raise his right paw and the same for the left. I would use operant and classical conditioning to reach the goal of teaching this trick to my dog. I must condition the dog to shake by using positive reinforcement. The dog (Max) already puts his paw on me when I grab his head so I will act like I am going to reach for his head and when he puts his paw on me I will say, shake. Every time he puts hi...
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  • Lemon Juice Classical Conditioning

    364 words

    We can see learning taking place all the time, but there is no simple explanation of the process. Psychologists have examined four types of learning; one of these is classical conditioning or response learning. Classical conditioning is the easiest kind of learning. Classical conditioning is based on experiments that took place in the 1900 s by the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. He trained dogs to salivate at signals such as lights, tones, or buzzers by using the signals when he gave food ...
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  • Classical Learning Vs Operant

    1,633 words

    There are many different fields of study in psychology. One field of study is the cognitive process of learning. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior potential) resulting from experience (Baron G- 7). The learning process helps us, all organisms, adapt to changing conditions in our environment and the world around us. Although the effects of learning are very diverse, many psychologists believe that learning occurs in several basic forms. Two of these forms are ca...
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  • Classical Conditioning And Observational Learning

    1,740 words

    Most Psychologists agree that the process of learning is usually permanent and is credited to past experience. However, they differ greatly in their belief as to what mechanisms are actually involved in learning to make changes occur and what kinds of past experiences are involved (Gross, (1992) p. 165). It is the authors intention, within the body of this essay to examine and evaluate the theory of learning from a behaviorist viewpoint, focusing on classical conditioning and the social learning...
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  • Amount Of Time Classical Conditioning

    1,236 words

    John B. Watson founded behaviorism in 1913. The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Hothersal, 2004). It views the mind as a "black box" in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively... Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner. For most people, the name "Pavlov" rings a bell. He is best known for his work in classical conditioning. Pavlov's mos...
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  • Classical Conditioning Young Man

    1,154 words

    Both classical conditioning and psychodynamic theory have played a pivotal role in the development of social psychology. For nearly all of the past century they have shaped and influenced the way psychologists, philosophers and ordinary people have felt about the nature of the human psyche. It is because of this that we continue to use those theories today to predict the outcome of certain situations. In our particular case we have a situation where one hundred women have been asked to rate the ...
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  • Conditioned Stimulus Panic Attacks

    1,273 words

    A phobic disorder is marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger. Agoraphobia is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety occasioned by the prospect of having to enter certain outdoor locations or open spaces. For example, busy streets, busy stores, tunnels, bridges, public transportation and cars. Traditionally agoraphobia was solely classified as a phobic disorder. However, due to recent studies it is now also viewed as a panic disorder....
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  • Operant Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus

    610 words

    The brain learns more with operant conditioning than classical conditioning because the brain tends to remember unusual things better than common things. In operant conditioning, you must have reinforcement, primary, secondary, positive, and negative reinforcement. Reinforcement is something that follows a response and makes you want to repeat that response. Primary reinforcement is the reinforcement that is first and of greatest importance. Secondary reinforcement is anything that comes as a pr...
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  • Long Term Memory Short Term Memory

    2,900 words

    Psychology: Learning and Memory There are many different kinds of ways that people and animals learn. People can adjust the way they learn to the different situations in which they are learning and what they have to learn. One form of learning is known as conditioning. Conditioning emphasizes the relationship between stimuli and responses. The two types of conditioning found are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Learning may occur in different ways. Psychologists have distinguishe...
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  • Study Of Human Nature

    1,237 words

    Study of Human Nature The study of human nature perhaps is one of the most exciting studies that were ever done by man. What is human nature and what makes people act the way they do is what many scientists, psychologists and sociologists had attempted discover throughout the centuries. Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle outlined many of the problems in psychology in the 5 th century BC. Darwin's theory of evolution also had an impact on psychology. In 1879 Wilhelm Wundt op...
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  • Month Old Baby Violence On Television

    2,453 words

    Breaking the Chains of Violence To return violence for violence does nothing but intensify the existence of violence and evil in the universe. Someone must have sense enough and morality enough to cut off the chains of violence and hate. -Martin Luther King, Jr. We live in a society that has seen a tremendous rise in juvenile violence over the past ten years. Juvenile homicides are twice as common today as they were in the mid- 1980 s (Begley 35). Forcible rapes by juveniles rose 28 % between 19...
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  • Social Learning Theory Cause And Effect

    2,053 words

    Discussion On Classical Conditioning As An Explanation Discussion On Classical Conditioning As An Explanation Of Learning We use the term classical conditioning to describe one type of associative learning in which there is no contingency between response and reinforcer. This situation resembles most closely the experiment from Pavlov in the 1920 s, where he trained his dogs to associate a bell ring with a food-reward. In such experiments, the subject initially shows weak or no response to a con...
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  • Unconditioned Stimulus Classical Conditioning

    619 words

    Association of Drugs and Pleasure Throughout life we are subjected to countless stimuli, and our responses to those stimuli shape and affect our lives and those surrounding us. This example of real life classical conditioning is one that took a negative affect on a close friend of mine. My senior year in high school my friend formed a new group of people he associated with. This was not a problem until drugs entered the equation, and soon after he began to associate drug use with fun, and enjoym...
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  • Learned To Associate Learn To Associate Desensitized

    923 words

    Although hunger and starvation are prevalent in our nation, Americans have turned their backs to this problem. We have turned our backs because we have been conditioned and desensitized by the media, to the issue of hunger. Classical conditioning is the process by which a stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. Classical conditioning is like the famous case of Pavlov s dogs that we learned about i...
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  • Operant Conditioning Neutral Stimulus

    1,081 words

    Psychology Tuesday, Personality Theory Chad Atwell Psychology Tuesday, October 03, 2000 Learning is defined as Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience (Coon). It is not, however, a temporary change caused by outside forces. Therefore, things such as motivation, disease and injury cannot be considered to be a form of learning. This is because once the disease, injury, etc. has been removed, behavior will return to it s state before the influence. There are...
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  • York W W Norton Neutral Stimulus

    1,968 words

    How has preparedness theory attempted to integrate a Pavlovian model of the acquisition of specific phobias with this biological specificity? What is the status of Preparedness theory today? When confronted with a phobic object or situation an individual appears to have little control and no alternative but to avoid the feared object or situation (Ohman &# 038; Soares, 1993). Consequently, individuals with a phobia can be vulnerable to anxiety induced automatic reactions to an object or situatio...
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  • Mad Cow Disease Anti Psychotic Drugs

    2,398 words

    Table of contents 1. Memory Mechanism Found At Nerve Cell Connections In The Brain Source: Science Daily Date published: May 19, 2000 2. Drug Psychotherapy Combo Found Highly Effective in Depression Study Source: Science Daily Date published: May 24, 2000 3. Suckling Behavior of Newborn Rats Can Be Manipulated Through Use of Scents, New Research Shows Source: Science Daily Date published: May 29, 2000 4. Study Opens Doors to Significant Changes in Medications for Schizophrenia Source: Science Da...
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Classical Conditioning Essay

Classical conditioning developed from the findings of Ivan Pavlov laying the foundations for behaviourism which was the dominant approach in psychology from the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Behaviourism studied the nature of relationships between the environment and the fact of observable behaviour. This essay will describe the important features of classical conditioning, consider their use in explaining pathological behaviour and will be answered using a variety of empirical evidence from academic texts, journal papers focussing on the following topics: the findings of Ivan Pavlov and the conditional reflex, the components of classical conditioning, acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery and stimulus generalisation, the work of Watson and Rayner with little Albert and conditioned fear response and finally, how phobias and addictions can be explained by classical conditioning.
The work of J.B Watson and other behaviourists argued psychology should be indicative of predicting and controlling overt behaviour using the conditional reflex. (J. B. Watson, 1994) In 1938 Watson published his paper outlining the behaviourist’s interpretation, discussing this as a new psychological, scientific and objective experimental approach in examining observable behaviour. (J. B. Watson, 1994) Classical conditioning as discussed by (Clark, 2004) was realised through the work of Nobel Prize winner Ivan Pavlov for his findings in the areas of physiology and digestion. Nevertheless, in his acceptance speech he only referred to the phenomenon of conditional reflexes. Pavlov used dogs in his experiments where the amount of saliva secreted was measured when the dog was presented with meat powder. The paradigm as defined by (Colman, 2009) is one of the two key processes of learning the other being operant conditioning. In classical conditioning the pairing of a conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response. (Clark, 2004) describes the process and components. The unconditioned stimuli (UCS) produced an unconditioned response (UCR). Pavlov did not teach this pairing to the animal; it was a biologically natural reflex. The dog saw food (UCS) and salivated (UR). In order to induce a conditioned reflex Pavlov paired neutral stimuli in this case a bell, with the meat powder. Acquisition is the root of learning in classical conditioning. In the acquisition process the CS is paired several times with the US. The more pairings the more robust the learning as discussed by (Balkenius, 1999). Pavlov observed that after conditioning when the bell rang the dog salivated therefore, the neutral stimuli became conditioned stimuli (CS) and the dog, when presented with the bell would show the reflexive response (CR) salivation. Extinction occurred if the CS is no longer presented with the US. (Dhir, 2007). Conversely, reconditioning countered extinction when pairings are again presented, this time however, the learning is much faster showing the initial acquisition is not...

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Classical Conditioning Paper

976 words - 4 pages Classical Conditioning PAGE 4 RUNNING HEAD: CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGClassical Conditioning PaperShayolonda HerronLearning and Cognition / PSY 390May 3, 2010Dr. Christa LynchClassical Conditioning PaperLearning is a critical function of the brain. Throughout the human life...

Classical and Operant Conditioning. Essay

748 words - 3 pages Classical and Operant ConditioningThere are many differences between classical and operant conditioning. One is the extent to which reinforcement depends on the behavior of the learner. In classical conditioning the response is a natural reaction that the subject cannot avoid. They can be conditioned at any time for that reason. It relies on...

Classical and Operant Conditioning

1191 words - 5 pages While many people may believe that learning is just a natural response that all animals are capable of, there is actually a more complex explanation on how we learn the things we do in order to survive in the world. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both basic forms of learning, they have the word conditioning in common. Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli. ...

Classical or Operant Conditioning

1187 words - 5 pages Classical conditioning developed from the findings of Ivan Pavlov, laying the foundations for behaviourism. From this J.B Watson and other behaviourists argued psychology should be indicative of predicting and controlling overt behaviour using the conditional reflex. (Watson, 1994). This essay will describe the important features of classical conditioning, consider their use in explaining pathological behaviour and will be answered using...

Operant and Classical Conditioning

847 words - 3 pages Classical conditioning was identified by Thorndike (pictured left), he experimented on a number of animals and generalised the results to humans. Classical conditioning is where a conditioned response leads to a conditioned response which has risen from unconditioned response caused by an unconditioned stimulus.Thorndike's Law of Exercise is the theory that when the stimulus and response are connected several times, then the connection...

Classical and Operant Conditioning

787 words - 3 pages There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. Thefirst explanation is known as classical conditioning. The secondexplanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types oflearning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home,school, and school.Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran PetrovichPavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus wasthe digestive...

Taste Aversion through Classical Conditioning

1176 words - 5 pages Taste Aversion through Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning states that learning is a gradual process, that it is not possible for a subject to be classically condition in only one trial. However, if you eat something and become sick from it, there is a very good probability that you will develop a strong distaste for that food. This effect is known as taste aversion, which has brought up many questions about classical...

Contrasting Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning

2660 words - 11 pages Learning is a very important part of Psychology and it has been defined as ‘any relatively permanent change in behaviour, or behaviour potential, produced by experience’ (Baron, p.169). Learning is a key process in human behaviour; it can play an important role in most of the activities we do. Even though the effects of learning are extremely diverse, most psychologists believe that learning occurs in several...

Fear of Flying and Classical Conditioning Theory

669 words - 3 pages How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for...

Ivan Pavlov and His Theory on Classical Conditioning

739 words - 3 pages Classical conditioning is the conditional programming of an organism to respond to a conditioned stimulus that seeks to enhanced and enforce a certain behavior in an organism. This is achieved through the use of classical conditioned stimulus or object that is presented with an unconditioned stimulus in an organism. Classical conditioning involves the use of a neutral stimulus in order to instil a classically generated behavior or response in an...

Classical Conditioning In Relation to Distrust in Relationships

1244 words - 5 pages Classical conditioning is the theory that involves a subject learning a new behavior by the process of association. A naturally occuring stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) is paired with a response (the unconditioned response). Then, a neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) is paired with the unconditioned stimulus and eventually the conditioned stimulus produces the initial response of the unconditioned stimulus without the...