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Iranian Studies

Description:Iranian Studies is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to Iranian and Persian history, literature, and society, published on behalf of the International Society for Iranian Studies. Its scope includes all areas of the world with a Persian or Iranian legacy, especially Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Caucasus, and northern India. It welcomes submissions in all disciplines.

Coverage: 1968-2010 (Vol. 1, No. 1 - Vol. 43, No. 5)

Moving Wall: 7 years (What is the moving wall?)

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.

Terms Related to the Moving Wall
Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive.
Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title.
Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.

ISSN: 00210862

Subjects: Middle East Studies, Area Studies

Collections: Arts & Sciences VII Collection, JSTOR Essential Collection

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

Please note that while these resources reflect the most recent updates in the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Introduction

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago style

The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.

The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

If you are asked to use the Chicago NB format, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). Students should also refer to A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). Both are available in most writing centers and reference libraries and in bookstores.

Introduction to Notes

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

If a work includes a bibliography, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.

In contrast to earlier editions of CMOS, if you cite the same source two or more times consecutively, CMOS recommends using shortened citations. In a work with a bibliography, the first reference should use a shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page number. Although discouraged by CMOS, if you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, it is also possible to utilize the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place,” as the corresponding note. If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space. 

Introduction to Bibliographies

In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used.

Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes. 

Common Elements

All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.

Author’s Names

The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. (If an author is not listed first, this applies to compilers, translators, etc.)

Titles

Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.

Publication Information

The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.

Punctuation

In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

For more information and specific examples, see the sections on Books and Periodicals.

Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography. For more information about Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays, please consult Chapter 14.61 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

General Format

As The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than for class papers, where necessary, CMOS guidelines will be supplemented with information from the student reference, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations and additions.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation style, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, including block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions. 
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked. 
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.). 

Major Paper Sections

Title Page
  • According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later. 
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.

 

    Image Caption: CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertation (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8th ed.]. 

Main Body
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To off-set the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to off-set the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
    designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
    organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
    communication. And these enwrap each individual life
    decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
    credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
    of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding 
    of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
    maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
    These assemblages which entail the securitization of
    identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
    but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
    relays and relations. (246)

References
  • Label the first page of your back matter, and your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author Date style). 
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. 
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 
    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 
    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 
    • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. 
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

Image Caption: CMOS References Page

Footnotes
  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash. 
  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).  
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper.

Headings

While CMOS does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, CMOS makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods. 

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Chicago Headings  

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 

2

Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization

3

Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  

4

Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

5

Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

Image Caption: CMOS Headings

 

Tables and Figures
  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.
    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by . . . ).
    • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period. 

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert,Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca, “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited date. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication.

(Clements et al. 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Contributor 1 LastName, Contributor 1 FirstName, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. 2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited October 12, 2017. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Books

General Model for Citing Books in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography System

Footnote or endnote (N):

   1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Corresponding bibliographical entry (B):

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Book by one author 

 N:

 1.  Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Viking Press, 1958), 128.  

 B:

Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958.

Book by multiple authors

Two or more authors should be listed in the order they appear as authors, and not necessarily alphabetically.

N:

    2. Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.

B:

Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

Translated work with one author

N:

   3. Julio Cortázar, Hopscotch, trans. Gregory Rabassa (New York: Pantheon Books, 1966), 165.

B:

Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.

Book with author and editor

In notes, CMOS prefers the abbreviation of “editor(s)” as “ed.” or “eds.,” and translator(s) as “trans.” In bibliographic entries, these abbreviations are not used. Instead, titles are spelled out in full. This information appears in the MLA Handbook, section 14.103.

N:

   4. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.

B:

Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Chapter from a single-authored book

CMOS supplies two correct forms for bibliographic entries. Both are noted here.

N:

   5. Gloria Anzaldua, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” in Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera, (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987): 53-64.  

B:

Anzaldua, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” In Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987. 

Or

Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987. See esp. chap. 5, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.”

Contributions from an edited collection with various authored chapters

When citing work by a single author that appears in a book with multiple authors, the contributing author’s name is cited first, followed by the title of their contribution, the word 'in' and the title of the book, along with the name(s) of the editors, and other standard information.

N:

   5. Phillip Appleman, “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie,” in Good Poems, ed. Garrison Keillor (New York: Penguin, 2002), 12.   

B:

Appleman, Phillip. “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie.” In Good Poems, edited by Garrison Keillor, 12. New York: Penguin, 2002.

Introduction, Preface, or Afterwords in a Book

Unlike other citations for books, bibliographic entries of this kind include the page number range for the part cited. 

N:

   6. Steven Pinker, introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, ed. John Brockman (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), xxv.

B:

Pinker, Steven. Introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, xxiii-xxxiii. Edited by John Brockman. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.

Anonymous works--Unknown authorship

Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. Follow the basic format for "Footnote or Endnote" and "Corresponding Bibliographical Entry" that are exemplified above omitting author and/or editor names and beginning respective entries with the title of the source.

Citing indirect sources

Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago requires the use of "quoted in" for the note:

N:

   7. Ian Hacking, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 103, quoted in Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society (New York: Continuum, 2006), 2.

Self-published or Privately Published Books 

Books published by the author should be cited according to information available on the title page or copyright page. In place of publisher, include language such as “self-published” (abbreviated as “self-pub” in notes, but not a bibliography) or “printed by the author” is usually appropriate. For self-published e-books, add the name of the application or device required to read the book or the name of the file format, or both.

N:

Kathleen Long, Chasing Rainbows: A Novel (self-pub., CreateSpace, 2011).

B:

Long, Kathleen. Chasing Rainbows: A Novel. Self-Published, CreateSpace, 2011.

 

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Periodicals

Periodicals include printed journals, electronic journals, magazines, and newspapers. Citations for these sources should include enough information for the reader to find the resource in a library or a database. Thus, publication dates are essential: magazines and newspapers are typically serialized by day, month, and year; journals include volume, year, month or season and issue number.

One of the major differences between notes and bibliographic entries in periodicals concerns the way in which major elements are separated. In notes, the major elements are separated by commas. In the bibliography, these elements are separated by periods.

Journals

Notes and bibliographic entries for a journal include the following: full name of author(s), article title, journal title and issue information. Issue information refers to volume, issue number, month, year, and page numbers. For online works, retrieval information and the date of access are also included.

Author’s Name:

Notes include the author’s name as listed in the article. Bibliographic entries, however, invert the author’s name.

Article Title:
Both notes and bibliographies use quotation marks to set off the titles of articles within the journal.

Journal Title:
Journal titles may omit an initial “The” but should otherwise be given in full, capitalized (headline-style), and italicized.

Issue Information:

The volume number follows the journal title with no punctuation and is not italicized. The issue number (if it is given) is separated from the volume number with a comma and is preceded by “no.” The year appears in parenthesis after the volume number (or issue number if given). The year may be preceded by a specific date, month, or season if given. Page information follows the year. For notes, page number(s) refer only to the cited material; the bibliography includes the first and last pages of the article.

N:

      1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

B:

MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Electronic Journals

Citing electronic journals generally follows the same format for printed periodicals, which is explained in the Journals section. Additionally, entries include the DOI or URL (DOIs are preferred). The date accessed is not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. If an access date is required for other reasons (e.g. by discipline, publisher, or instructor), the access date should be included immediately prior to the DOI or URL. If included, access dates should be separated by commas in notes or periods in bibliographical entries.

Dates:

Even if weekly or monthly magazines are numbered by volume or issue, they are cited by date only. When following the CMOS Note and Bibliography style, the year is presented as shown in the examples below. When following the CMOS Author Date style, the date is essential to the citation and it is not enclosed in parentheses.

Page Numbers:
Citations for journal articles may include a specific page number. Inclusive page numbers for the entire article are often omitted in bibliographical entries, however, because the pages of the article are often separated by many pages of unrelated material. If page numbers are included, they should follow the date and be preceded by a colon.

N:

      1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 4, 2017, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

B:

Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 4, 2017. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

Magazines

Notes and bibliographic entries for magazines include the following information: author’s name, article title (enclosed by quotation marks), magazine title (italicized), and date. Page numbers are included in notes but are omitted in bibliographic entries. Regular departments (or regularly occurring subsections) in a magazine are capitalized, but not put in quotation marks. For example, National Geographic is the magazine that regularly includes a department called Foods of the Region.  

N:

      1. Emily Macel, “Beijing’s Modern Movement,” Dance Magazine, February 2009, 35.

B:

Macel, Emily. “Beijing’s Modern Movement.” Dance Magazine, February 2009.

Online Magazines

Notes and bibliographic entries for online magazines should follow the relevant examples for printed magazines. Additionally, online magazine entries should contain the URL at the end of the citation. If no stable URL exists, the name of the database can be substituted.

Note:
In the examples below, Green Room is not placed in quotation marks because it is the department title rather than the article title.

Access Date:
Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. If an access date is required for other reasons (e.g. by discipline, publisher, or instructor), the access date should be included immediately prior to the URL. In notes, access dates are surrounded by commas and in bibliographic entries they are surrounded by periods.

N:

      1. Barron YoungSmith, "Date Local: The case against long-distance relationships." Green Room, Slate, February 4, 2009, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

B:

YoungSmith, Barron. "Date Local: The case against long-distance relationships." Green Room. Slate, February 4, 2009. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

Newspapers

Notes and bibliographic entries for newspapers should include the following: name of the author (if listed), headline or column heading, newspaper name, month (often abbreviated), day, and year. Since issues may include several editions, page numbers are usually omitted. If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation. Time stamps may be appropriate to include when stories for unfolding events are modified.

Names of Newspapers:

If the name of a newspaper begins with “The,” this word is omitted. For American newspapers that are not well-known, a city name should be added along with the newspaper title (see below). Additionally, a state abbreviation may be added in parenthesis after the city name.

News Services:

News services, such as the Associated Press or the United Press International, are capitalized but not italicized and often appear in the author position of the citation.

Headlines:

Headlines may be capitalized using “headline style,” in which all major words are capitalized. Although many major newspapers prefer sentence style, the CMOS recommends headline style for consistency among various types of cited sources. Headlines presented entirely in full capital letters in the original are usually converted to headline-style upper and lower case in the citation.

Regular Columns:
If a regular column is cited, the column name may be included with the article title.

Editorials, Letters to the Editor, and Readers’ Comments:
Published editorials and letters to the editor should be treated generically, usually without headlines. Instead of a title, use “letter to the editor” [14.196].

Citing in Text:

Newspapers are more often cited in notes or parenthetical references than in bibliographies. If newspaper sources are carefully documented in the text, they need not be cited in the bibliography.

N:

      1. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

B:

Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Web Sources

General Model for Citing Web Sources in Chicago Style

Titles for Websites, Blogs, and Social Media: The title of a website that is analogous to a traditionally printed work but does not have (and never had) a printed counterpart can be treated like titles of other websites. For example, Wikipedia can be treated as a website, rather than as a conventional encyclopedia. This is a departure from previous editions of CMOS.

Titles of websites should follow headline-style capitalization and are usually set in roman. There are, however, some exceptions: titles of blogs are set in italics and titles of books, journals, television shows, movies, and other types of works should be treated the same whether cited as a print version or an online version. For example, when citing the website of the television news station CNN, the title maintains italics. Furthermore, in cases such as this, when a website does not have a distinctive title, it can be cited based on the entity responsible for the website, for instance, CNN online.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

      1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online

Electronic books are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a media marker at the end of the citation: Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book, Palm e-book, CD-ROM, etc. Books consulted online are also cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI (or URL) at the end of the citation. See also Books.

Note: Stable page numbers are not always available in electronic formats; therefore, you may include the number of chapter, section, or other easily recognizable locator instead.

Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments, Fourth ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2010. Kindle edition.

N:

      1. Donald Davidson, Essays on Actions and Events (Oxford: Clarendon, 2001), https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf.

B:

Davidson, Donald, Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001. https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf

Online Periodicals (Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles)

Online periodicals are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation. See also Periodicals. Also keep in mind that while access dates are not required for formally published electronic sources (journal articles), they can be useful for informally published electronic sources or may be required for by some disciplines for all informally and formally published electronic sources. Access dates should be located immediately prior to the DOI or URL.

For four or more authors (in a book), list the first author in the note followed by et al. For the corresponding bibliographic entry, list all authors (up to 10).

N:

      1. Kirsi Peltonen et al. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health,” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822, doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

B:

Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Web Page with Known Author and Date

N:

      7. Richard G. Heck, Jr., “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php

B:

Heck, Jr., Richard G. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php

Web Page with Known Date but without Known Author

N:

      8. “Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government,” CNN online, last modified January 30, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

B:

"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN online. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

Web Page with Unknown Publication Date and Author

N:

      9. “Band,” Casa de Calexico, accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

B:

“Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

Blog

Blog titles should be set in italics and blog entries should be set in quotation marks. Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.

N:

       1. J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

   2. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010 (3:40 a.m.), comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

Podcast

Note: If the word “podcast” is included in the title of the podcast, there is no need to repeat it enclosed in commas after that title. “Podcast audio” is used below, then, as an example placeholder and would not necessarily be required for this specific example.

N:

      1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

B:

Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27. accessed October 31, 2017. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

Blank Form for Online Multimedia

N:

      1. Firstname Lastname of Performer, Writer or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.

B:

Lastname, Firstname of Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Text. Indication of Medium, Running Time. Publication Date. URL.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Audiovisual Recordings and Other Multimedia

This resource explains how to cite film, television, and other audiovisual materials. Citations for such recorded media usually include some or all of the following information: name of the person primarily responsible for the content of the recording (composer, writer, performer, etc.), a title in quotation marks or italics, recording company or publisher’s name, identifying number, an indication of medium (DVD, videocassette, etc.), and a copyright and/or production or performance date. Entries for recorded material found online should also include a DOI or URL.

General Model for Citing Film, Television, and Other Recorded Mediums in Chicago Style

The order of the elements listed—and whether or not they will be included—depends not only on the nature of the source, but also whether a part or the whole source is cited, and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation.

 Footnote or Endnote (N):

   1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year), Medium.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

DVD

N:

   1. Joe Versus the Volcano, directed by John Patrick Shanley (1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.

B:

Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.

Musical Recordings

General audiovisual guidelines apply to music recordings. If no date can be located, CMOS recommends consulting a library catalog or other source. Usually, musical citations without a date are unacceptable, but if they must be used, “n.d.” (for no date) can be substituted.

N:

   1. Name of group or composer or performer, Title, Recording date, Recording Company or Publisher, Track Number on Name of Album, Year of Release, Medium.

1.  Bob Dylan, “Workingman’s Blues #2,” recorded February 2006, track 3 on Modern Times, Columbia. compact disc.

B:

Name of group or composer or performer. Title. Recording date. Recording Company or Publisher, Medium.

Dylan, Bob. “Workingman’s Blues #2.” Recorded February 2006. Track 3 on Modern Times. Columbia. Compact disc. 

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Interviews and Personal Communication

In citations for interviews and personal communications, the name of the person interviewed or the person from whom the communication is received should be listed first. This is followed by the name of the interviewer or recipient, if given, and supplemented by details regarding the place and date of the interview/communication. Unpublished interviews and personal communications (such as face-to-face or telephone conversations, letters, e-mails, or text messages) are best cited in text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. Published interviews should be like periodical articles or book chapters.

Unpublished Interviews

N:

   1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2009.

   2. Harvey Kail, interview by Laurie A. Pinkert, March 15, 2009, interview 45B, transcript.

Published or Broadcast Interviews

N:

   1. Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

B:

Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

Personal Communications

Personal communications are usually fully integrated within the text or contained within a note. They rarely appear as bibliographic entries. Email addresses or the like belonging to an individual are generally omitted, and can should only be cited with permission of the owner.

N:

   1. Patricia Burns, e-mail message to author, December 15, 2008.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings

This resource covers The Chicago Manual Style guidelines for citing lectures, papers presented at meetings or poster sessions, and other similar presentations. Such entries often include the sponsorship, location, and date of the meeting following the title. When such texts are published, they should be treated like a chapter in a book or article in a journal.

N:

   1. Paul Hanstedt, “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom” (presentation, Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 11-14, 2009).

B:

Hanstedt, Paul. “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom.” Presentation at the Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 11-14, 2009.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Legal, Public and Unpublished Materials

General Guidelines for Public and Unpublished Materials 

Notes and bibliographic entries for public documents, like other documents, should include the elements needed to locate the items. These essential elements often include the following: 

  • Country, city, state, county 
  • Legislative body, executive department, court, bureau, board commission or committee 
  • Subsidiary divisions 
  • Title, if any, of the document or collection 
  • Individual author (editor or compiler), if given 
  • Report number or any other identification necessary or useful in finding the specific document 
  • Publisher, if different from issuing body 
Footnote or Endnote (N): 

1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Document” (source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication), page number(s).

Corresponding Bibliographic Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Document.” Source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication.

Legal Materials and Government Documents 

Legal materials and other government documents should be cited using footnotes, endnotes, and/or citation sentences (with clauses including the same information required in a footnote). They are not required to be cited in a bibliography or on a references page. In Author-Date style, citation sentences alone are an acceptable form of citation. (For more information, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sections 14.269-305 and 15.58.)  

In the case of legal documents, print copies of the sources are preferred to digital, though verified digital sources are acceptable. 

Court Decisions and Cases 

Notes for court cases should include case name, number, volume number, abbreviated name(s) of reporter, and, in parenthese, the abbreviated name of the court and the date. Case names written in full are typeset in Roman, while in subsequent shortened citations the short form of the case name is italicized. Citations are assumed to refer to decisions as a whole unless a particular page is cited using “at” (see example 3 below). The CMOS offers the following note examples in section 14.276: 

  1. United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000).

  2. Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988).

  3. Christmas, 222 F.3d at 145. The court also noted that under United States v. Sokolow, 490 U.S. 1, 7 (1989), police may briefly detain a person without probable cause if the officer believes criminal activity “may be afoot.” Christmas, 222 F.3d at 143; see also Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968). 

Theses and Dissertations 

Thesis and dissertation titles appear in quotation marks, not in italics, but are cited in all other ways like books. Include name, title, type of document, academic institution, and date, in that order. If the item was found online, include a URL or DOI (see guidelines for citing online sources). 

Footnote or Endnote (N): 

1. Tara Hostetler, “Bodies at War: Bacteriology and the Carrier Narratives of ‘typhoid Mary’” (master’s thesis, Florida State University, 2007), 15-16.

Corresponding Bibliographic Entry (B):

Hostetler, Tara. "Bodies at War: Bacteriology and the Carrier Narratives of ‘Typhoid Mary.’” Master’s thesis, Florida State University, 2007.

Letters and Unpublished Manuscripts 

Letters and unpublished materials that have not been archived may be cited like other unpublished material, with information on location replaced by wording such as “private collection of Trinity Overmyer” or “in the author’s possession.” The location is not mentioned.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

CMOS Author Date Sample Paper

This resource contains the Author Date sample paper for The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). To download the sample paper, select the CMOS Author Date Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

CMOS NB Sample Paper

This resource contains the Notes and Bibliography (NB) sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition. To download the sample paper, select the CMOS NB Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

CMOS NB PowerPoint Presentation

Select the CMS NB PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the CMOS NB citation style, 17th edition.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

CMOS Author Date PowerPoint Presentation

Select the CMOS Author-Date PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the CMOS Author-Date citation style from the 17th edition.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

CMOS Author Date Classroom Poster

The CMOS Author Date poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms, writing centers, or as a pocket reference. Please keep in mind that the file size, as a print-quality resource (120 dpi), is large, so it may take a while to download. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu. As is, the poster is 27 x 36 inches.

Because the poster is quite large, standard printers cannot print the poster. If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents, contact a local print shop to print the poster. The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters.

If you do not have access to a print shop to print the poster, please use the resources we have available for printing on standard 8.5 x 11 inch paper. Go to resource you would like to print, scroll down to the bottom of the page, and click "Full Resource for Printing."

Also please note that the poster only contains basic CMOS guidelines. For detailed instructions, please see the complete OWL CMOS resources.

The Purdue OWL CMOS Author Date Classroom Poster was originally developed by Megan Lancaster.

Purdue OWL CMOS Author Date Classroom Poster (Please note: The poster is best viewed in Firefox.)

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

CMOS NB Classroom Poster

The CMOS Notes and Bibliography (NB) poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms, writing centers, or as a pocket reference. Please keep in mind that the file size, as a print-quality resource (120 dpi), is large, so it may take a while to download. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu. As is, the poster is 27 x 36 inches.

Because the poster is quite large, standard printers cannot print the poster. If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents, contact a local print shop to print the poster. The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters.

If you do not have access to a print shop to print the poster, please use the resources we have available for printing on standard 8.5 x 11 inch paper. Go to resource you would like to print, scroll down to the bottom of the page, and click "Full Resource for Printing."

Also please note that the poster only contains basic CMS guidelines. For detailed instructions, please see the complete OWL CMOS resources.

The Purdue OWL CMOS NB Classroom Poster was originally developed by Megan Lancaster.

Purdue OWL CMOS NB Classroom Poster (Please note: The poster is best viewed in Firefox.)