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Action Plan Assignment Psy/220 Week 9

  • PSYC 100 (3) Introduction to Psychology

     Introduction to basic concepts, problems, and research methods in the science of psychology. Includes perception, cognitive processes, learning, motivation, measurement, development, personality, abnormal behavior, and biological and social bases of behavior, including cross-cultural issues. The requirements will include participation in low-risk psychological experiments or completion of additional short papers.

  • PSYC 110 (3) Critical Thinking in Psychology

    An introduction to critical thinking skills as they are applied in the science of psychology. Basic critical thinking skills covered include logical inferences and fallacies, distinguishing fact from opinion, scientific reasoning and interpreting research findings. Emphasis will be on using critical thinking skills to examine a number of contemporary issues involving human behavior, such as hypnosis, ESP, subliminal perception, persuasion and propaganda, drug legalization, AIDS prevention, and the effects of television.

  • PSYC 210 (3) Introduction to Developmental Psychology

    An introductory survey course that utilizes a chronological approach to examine human development from birth through adolescence. Includes a study of physical development and health; developmental issues of children with special needs; cognitive and moral development; social and personality development; and genetic, sociocultural, and other influences on development.

  • PSYC 215 (3) Child, Family, Community

    Study of child and adolescent development within the psychosocial worlds of family, school, and community. Bidirectional effects and interactions among these influences will be explored. Age, gender, diverse abilities, ethnicity, socioeconomic, and public factors that affect development of values, attitudes, morals, and behavior of children and youth will be considered within an ecological framework.

  • PSYC 220 (3) Introductory Statistics in Psychology

    Basic statistical methods for analysis of data in psychology; descriptive and inferential statistics; hypothesis testing; parametric tests of significance. Introduction to linear regression and correlation; analysis of variance; nonparametric techniques. The requirements will include participation in low-risk psychological experiments or completion of additional short papers. Two hours of lecture and two hours of activities.

  • PSYC 230 (3) Research Methods in Psychology

    The fundamentals of research methods in psychology. Focus will be on issues of reliability, validity, and ethical considerations in conducting research with humans and animals. Participation in designing and conducting experiments, data analysis and interpretation, and preparation of research reports. The requirements will include participation in low-risk psychological experiments or completion of additional short papers. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100 and 220 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 231 (1) Psychology Research Methods Laboratory

    Introduces students to the basics of statistical software; date collection, entry, and analysis; and report writing. Students will actively participate in the research process and apply what was learned in their research methods class. The fundamentals learned in this class will prepare students for upper-division psychology lab courses. Three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, and a lecture-only research methods course with grades of C (2.0) or better. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for PSYC 230; (this course is for transfer students who did not have a lab component in their lower-division research methods course.)

  • PSYC 300 (3) Computer Applications in Psychology

    Exploration of the application of computer technology to the scientific study of behavior, including new and emerging technologies for psychological research, software and statistical packages, computer ethics, and professional report writing. Prerequisite: PSYC 220 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 310 (3) Theories of Developmental Psychology

    Provides an overview of theories of child and adolescent development and examines the ways in which theory informs research and practice in dealing with children and adolescents. Examines application of the major theories, discusses strengths and weaknesses of each, and places their development in historical and cultural context. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 210, and 215 with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 328 (3) Developmental Psychopathology

    Causes and effects of various psychological disorders of childhood and adolescence are examined from an integrative perspective that addresses biological, genetic, family, social, and cultural influences as well as individual processes including cognition, emotion, attachment, moral development, gender, and sexuality. Diagnoses, treatments, and interventions are covered as well as comorbidities and developmental norms. Prerequisites: PSYC 100 and 210 or PSYC 100 and 330 and 348.

  • PSYC 330 (3) Developmental Psychology: Infancy and Childhood

    Examination of development from conception through childhood with emphasis on sociocultural contexts of development, physical growth and health, social-emotional cognitive, and language development. Examines issues of family, gender, ethnicity, culture, and class in the context of their effects on development. Enrollment restricted to students who have completed the Lower Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D). Students may not take both PSYC 330 and 331. May not be counted toward the Psychology Major or Minor.

  • PSYC 331 (3) Infancy and Childhood: Theories and Research

    Focus on theories, methods,and research in developmental psychology from conception through childhood. Includes biological, genetic, and physical development;social-emotional development, cognitive and language development;perception and brain development. Analysis and synthesis of scholarly articles are integral parts of this course.Enrollment requirement:PSYC100.Enrollment restricted to PSYC majors and minorsand CHAD majors only, or consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 332 (3) Social Psychology

    Study of individuals and groups as they are affected by social interactions. Subjects include social influence (conformity, obedience), attitudes and attitude change, attraction, altruism, aggression, social perception and cognition, interpersonal influence, and group processes. Prerequisite: PSYC 100.

  • PSYC 333 (3) Psychology of Prejudice

    Examines psychological theory and research on prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping from the perspectives of both the holders and targets of prejudice. In particular, the course emphasizes the cognitive, motivational, and social bases of prejudice, racism, sexism, as well as prejudice reduction. May not be taken by students who have received credit for PSYC 440J. Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 334 (3) Psychology of Personality

    Theory and assessment techniques in personality research. Subject matter includes study of personality structure, development, personality dynamics, and determinants of personality. Prerequisite: PSYC 100.

  • PSYC 336 (3) Abnormal Psychology

    Causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. Regular visits to local psychiatric facilities may be required. Prerequisite: PSYC 100.

  • PSYC 338 (3) Environmental Psychology

    Examines human behaviors associated with environmental problems, including global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, destruction of the rainforests, and depletion of natural resources. Covers such subjects as the commons dilemma, rational choice, values, and incentives. Examines interventions designed to change human behavior such as conservation, public transportation, recycling, and environmental education. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 340 (3) Survey of Clinical Psychology

    Introduction to the field of clinical psychology with an emphasis on the application and evaluation of techniques of individual and group counseling and therapy. Includes methods, diagnosis, research, therapeutic techniques, educational and professional requirements, ethics. Prerequisites: PSYC 100 and PSYC 336.

  • PSYC 341 (3) Multicultural Perspectives in Psychology

    Theory and research in the study of psychosocial issues of racial, ethnic, and cultural groups, both in the U.S. and elsewhere. Subject matter includes examining the relationship of race, culture, and social class in psychological development and discussing the research implications for the multicultural study of psychology. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 342 (3) Group Dynamics

    Study of small group behavior and team effectiveness. Examines subjects such as group membership, systems theory, communication, group decision-making, group development and performance, and conflict management. Focuses on diverse perspectives in organizations and work groups. Cross-cultural work settings, and gender differences in leadership and group behavior. Theory and research about group dynamics will be applied to organizational, educational, and counseling settings. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 343 (3) Psychology of Work and the Family

    Focuses on the impact of parental employment on the physical, cognitive, and socioeconomic development of children and adolescents. Subjects will include parental labor force participation, work/family conflict and balance, effects of employment and daycare, and cross-cultural, ethnic, and social class differences. Additionally, the course will address “family friendly organizations” and how businesses are responding to work-family issues. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education Area D.

  • PSYC 344 (3) Positive Psychology

    Examines psychological theory and research on the study of optimal human functioning and what makes life worth living. Focuses on such topics as happiness, strengths, hope, forgiveness, wisdom, and gratitude. Covers core assumptions, measurement techniques, research findings, and practical applications and interventions. Students have the opportunity to evaluate their well-being, strengths, and limitations, and learn ways to apply positive psychology to important domains in their lives and in the lives of the people with whom they interact. May not be taken by students who have received credit for PSYC 440K. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D)

  • PSYC 346 (3) Principles of Behavior Change

    An examination of theories and methods of behavioral change. Focuses on behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to making positive changes in human behavior. Includes social learning theory and the application of learning principles to psychological and behavioral problems. Prerequisites: PSYC 100 and 336, or consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 348 (3) Developmental Psychology: Adolescence

    Addresses the theories, methods, and research on the development of adolescence (ages 10-22). It emphasizes empirical research on physical, cognitive, and social development and considers the gender, ethnic and socioeconomic differences found in such development. Subjects include the timing of pubertal development, teen pregnancy, parent-adolescent relations, identity development, peer relations, the transition to adulthood, and adolescent psychopathology (suicide, depression, eating disorders). Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D). May not be counted toward the Psychology Major or Minor.

  • PSYC 349 (3) Adolescence: Theories and Research

    Covers theories, methods, and research in development from early adolescence through emerging adulthood. Includes biological and physical development, social-emotional development, cognitive development, and social influences on adolescent behavior. Focus on analysis and synthesis of scholarly articles and application of theories and methods to the study of adolescence.Enrollment requirement: PSYC 100. Enrollment restricted to PSYC majors and minors and CHAD majors or consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 350 (3) Psychology of Women

    Theories and research in the study of the psychological characteristics of women in the social contexts of culture, class, and race, including sex and gender similarities and differences, the construction of gender roles, stereotypes, intimacy, work and achievement, motherhood, violence against women, mental and emotional adjustment, and aging. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 352 (3) Human Sexuality

    Examines physical, intrapsychic, and interpersonal aspects of sexuality; also anatomical, physiological, and emotional aspects, love and attraction, sexual dysfunction treatment, sexually transmitted diseases, sex and aging, legal aspects of sexual behavior, sexual exploitation, and eroticism in American culture. Presentations will be frank and explicit. Enrollment restricted to students who have completed the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 353 (3) Psychology in the Workplace: Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Current psychological principles and traditional theories in industry and work organizations. Selection, placement, training, and motivation of people in work situations. Environmental and human influences, system safety, and organizational development. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for PSYC 418. Prerequisite: PSYC 100.

  • PSYC 354 (3) Educational Psychology: Psychological Perspectives

    An introduction to psychological research and theory on how instruction affects student learning. Learning, motivation, development, individual differences, psychological aspects of the classroom, and evaluation as related to the educative process. Credit may not be counted toward programs in the School of Education. Prerequisite: PSYC 100.

  • PSYC 356 (3) Developmental Psychology: Adulthood and Aging

    Theories and research in adult development and aging. Includes cognitive, social, psychological, and physical development; vocational and family changes, retirement, successful and unsuccessful adjustment patterns. Issues of gender, social class, and racial/ethnic factors, and their impact on aging will be covered extensively. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 360 (3) Biopsychology

    Introduction to the biological bases of behavior, including material central to physiological psychology, comparative psychology, behavioral genetics, and sensory psychology. Issues to be addressed include but are not limited to neuroethology, behavioral endocrinology, evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and sensory systems. Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or BIOL 211.

  • PSYC 361 (3) Brain and Mind

    Examines the relationship between the brain and the behavior produced by the brain. Intended for non-majors, this course will review basic neuroanatomy and physiology, and consider mind/brain relations in the context of psychoactive drugs, brain development, neurological disorders, sexual behavior, and cognitive abilities such as language, memory, thinking, and consciousness. Also offered as BIOL 348. Students may not receive credit for both. May not be counted toward the Psychology Major or Minor. Enrollment restricted to students who have completed the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Life Science (B2).

  • PSYC 362 (3) Cognitive Processes

    Theoretical and research approaches to the study of thinking, problem-solving, language, concept learning, decision making and judgment, cognitive development, and cognitive structure. Prerequisite: PSYC 100.

  • PSYC 363 (3) Drugs, Brain, Behavior and Society

    An introduction to the use of drugs in modern society. Emphasizes psychoactive drugs, including psychotherapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse. Explores the effects of drugs on the brain and behavior, psychological and biological factors responsible for their use and misuse, as well as social, cultural, historical and legal aspects of drug use. The content will range from general principles of drug action to focused information on specific classes of drugs. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Discipline-specific or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (D).

  • PSYC 391 (3) Laboratory in Physiological Psychology

    Advanced research methods in physiological processes underlying brain function and behavior. Application of methodological principles to research in such areas as neuroanatomy, physiology, behavioral neuroscience and psychopharmacology. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230, and 360 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 392 (3) Laboratory in Sensation and Perception

    Advanced research methods in sensory and perceptual processes. Application of methodological principles to research in such areas as audition and vision. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230, and 360 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 393 (3) Laboratory in Cognitive Psychology

    Advanced research methods in human cognitive processes. Application of methodological principles to research in such areas as memory and problem-solving. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230, and 362 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 394 (3) Laboratory in Comparative Animal Behavior

    Advanced research methods in animal behavior, including human behavior. Application of methodological principles to research in such areas as predator/prey interactions, communication, aggression, and mating behavior. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory; one or more field trips required. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230, and 360 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 395 (3) Laboratory in Developmental Psychology

    Advanced research methods in life-span developmental psychology. Application of methodological principles to research in such areas as cognitive and social development. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230, and either PSYC 330, 348, or 356 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 396 (3) Laboratory in Social Psychology

    Advanced research methods in social psychology. Application of methodological principles to research in such areas as group interaction and person perception. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230, and 332 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 402 (4) Psychological Testing

    Principles and practices of group and individual testing in aptitude, intelligence, interest, and personality. Theory, construction, evaluation, interpretation, uses, and limits of psychological tests. Reliability, validity, item analysis, norms, and test construction and selection. Ethical, sociocultural, and gender issues in testing. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, 230 with grades of C (2.0) or better. Enrollment Requirement: One upper-division psychology laboratory course.

  • PSYC 422 (3) Social Cognition

    Critically examines the theories, research, and practical applications centered around the basic issue of how people make sense of other people, themselves, and their social environment. Subject matter covered includes attribution theory, schemas and person perception, self-perception, prejudice and stereotyping, nonverbal communication, and social inference. Prerequisites: PSYC 100 and 332, or consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 424 (3) Advanced Psychological Statistics

    Advanced statistical methods for analysis of data in psychology. Sampling distributions, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance techniques. Applications to research design and evaluation of data in psychology. Two hours of lecture and two hours of activities. Prerequisites: PSYC 100 and 220 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 432 (3) Health Psychology

    Examines areas of health, illness, treatment, and delivery of treatment that may be elucidated by an understanding of psychological concepts and research. Explores the psychological perspective on these areas and considers how the psychological perspective might be enlarged and extended in the health care area. Prerequisites: PSYC 100, 220, and 230 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better. Enrollment Requirement: Three (3) units of upper-division psychology courses must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 440 (3) Topics in Psychology

    An intensive look at selected areas of psychology. Course description available before registration in the semester offered. May be repeated for credit as topics change, but only three (3) units may be counted toward the major. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics. Prerequisites: Vary according to the topic.

  • PSYC 461 (3) Neuropsychopharmacology

    An examination of the ways that drugs affect the brain and behavior. Emphasis on psychoactive drugs, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics and drugs of abuse. Although social, cultural and political aspects of drug use will be briefly touched upon, when appropriate, the primary focus of the course will be neurobiological and behavioral effects of the drugs. Prerequisite: PSYC 360 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 465 (3) Human Neuropsychology

    Principles and practice of human neuropsychology. Material will focus upon basic topics, theory and empirical research concerning human neuroanatomy, brain-behavior relationships, and the clinical application of this knowledge base. Major emphasis will be placed upon disorders of the central nervous system which affect cognitive and emotional processes. Prerequisite: PSYC 360 or 362 must be completed with a grade of C (2.0) or better.

  • PSYC 490 (3) History of Psychology

    Historical, philosophical, and scientific background of Psychology; major traditions and conceptual issues. This is a capstone course and should be taken by psychology majors in their final semester at CSUSM.
    Enrollment Requirement: Completion of nine (9) units of upper-division psychology courses.

  • PSYC 495 (3) Field Experience in Psychological Settings

    Supervised field experience in on- and off-campus settings which provide psychological services, such as medical settings, mental health clinics, schools, and industry. Students will spend approximately six hours per week in a field placement for observation and participation, attend weekly class meetings, read related material, and prepare written reports. Application forms must be completed prior to enrollment. May be repeated, but no more than three (3) units of credit may be applied toward the major. Enrollment Requirement: Nine (9) units of upper division psychology courses. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor. Specific sections of this course may carry additional prerequisites.

  • PSYC 498A (1) 498B (2) 498C (3) 498D (4) Independent Study

    Study plan must be approved by the fourth week of classes. Individual library study (e.g., review of literature) under direction of a faculty member. May be repeated, but no more than three (3) units of credit may be applied toward the major. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.  For more information, see the FAQ for Independent Study/Research.

  • PSYC 499A (1) 499B (2) 499C (3) 499D (4) Independent Research

    Study plan must be approved by the fourth week of classes. Independent research investigation (e.g., empirical laboratory or field research) in collaboration with a faculty member. May be repeated, but no more than three (3) units of credit may be applied toward the major. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of at least one upper-division laboratory course in psychology. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.  For more information, see the FAQ for Independent Study/Research.

  • PSYC 520 (3) Graduate Statistics

    Introduction to theory and application of some of the more advanced parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques employed in psychological research. Topics will include but are not limited to multiple regression, analysis of covariance, factor analysis, causal modeling, and discriminant function analysis. Two hours of lecture and two hours of activities. Prerequisite: PSYC 424. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 530 (3) Advanced Research Methods

    Advanced study of research design, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs, assessment of reliability and validity, and ethical use of human and animal subjects in research. Prerequisite: PSYC 424 or 520. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 550 (3) Proseminar in Social/ Personality Psychology

    An exploration of research and theory in social and personality psychology. Advanced study of theories of personality and individual differences, social perception, group processes, attitudes, and the application of personality and social psychological theories across a variety of social, institutional, and cultural settings. A substantial portion of class time is devoted to the critical examination of current research articles and theoretical models in social/ personality psychology. Students will make formal oral and written presentations of individual or group projects/assignments. May be repeated for a total of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 552 (3) Proseminar in Developmental Psychology

    Advanced study of current research and theory in developmental psychology. Issues such as temperament, attachment, gender-identity, cognition, and emotion will be considered from a developmental perspective, as well as the influences of family relationships, social interactions, cultural values, education, and social policy on development. Class discussions and assignments will encourage critical and analytic thinking as well as active learning approaches. Students will make formal oral and written presentations of individual and/or group projects. May be repeated for a total of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 554 (3) Proseminar in Cognitive Psychology

    Advanced study of human cognition. Focuses on theory and research in areas such as attention, categorization, memory, knowledge representation, learning and skill acquisition, psychology of language, thinking, reasoning, problem-solving, and judgment. Relevant issues in neuropsychology, cognitive development, and cognitive disorders will be included to complement the focus on normal adult performance. The role of culture in cognitive activity will be discussed. Discussions and assignments will center around a critical examination of current literature in these areas, including both integrative and interdisciplinary (cognitive science) perspectives. May be repeated for a total of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 556 (3) Proseminar in Comparative/Physiological Psychology

    Advanced study of the biological bases of behavior. Critical examination of current research articles and theoretical models in one or more areas of biological psychology such as neuroanatomy and physiology, psychopharmacology, endocrinology, evolutionary theory, and the adaptive significance of behavior. Students will make formal oral and written presentations of individual or group projects. May be repeated for a total of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 558 (3) Proseminar in Counseling/ Clinical Psychology

    In-depth seminar designed to investigate and discuss current topics in counseling/ clinical psychology, including assessment and intervention techniques, professional ethics, multicultural issues, and outcome research. Students will present formal written and oral presentations and lead class discussions of advanced issues relevant to counseling/clinical theory, research, or practice. May be repeated for a total of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 560 (3) Selected Topics in Psychology

    Examination of a topic of current interest in a specific area of psychology. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program. May be repeated for credit as topics change for a total of six (6) units. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 600 (3) Contemporary Issues in Psychology

    Students will receive exposure to theoretical background, current research, and contemporary issues in counseling/clinical, cognitive, comparative/physiological, developmental, and social/ personality psychology. Presentations will be given by faculty, second year graduate students, and guest speakers in their fields of expertise. Professional issues including ethics in psychological research and practice, the dissemination of scholarly discourse, the status and coherence of the discipline, and its role in a multicultural, global society will also be explored. Enrollment restricted to students enrolled in the psychology graduate program.

  • PSYC 680 (3) Teaching of Psychology

    An introduction to pedagogical theories, styles, and strategies as they apply to college teaching of psychology. Students will explore a range of options available to a college instructor in the presentation of course material, learning assessment tools, test construction, and grading. Different styles of learning, especially as they may apply to a multicultural student population, will be explored. Students will have the opportunity to write and practice giving lectures, lead mock discussion groups, and construct mock exams. Students must enroll in PSYC 680 in the first semester of their second year of study. Graded Credit/No Credit. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of fifteen (15) units in the graduate program. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 681 (3) Field Placement

    Students will spend a minimum of ten hours per week working within a social service, mental health, educational or business/industry setting, with the goal of applying psychological knowledge to and learning about the delivery of services in that setting. Students will be supervised both on site, and by the course instructor. Students enrolled in the course will meet three hours per week as a group to discuss issues and readings relevant to their experiences. Graded Credit/No Credit. Enrollment Requirement: Completion of nine (9) units in the graduate program. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor

  • PSYC 690 (3) Graduate Research

    Faculty-supervised research. May be repeated, but no more than six (6) units of credit may be applied toward the Master’s degree. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

  • PSYC 699 (3) Graduate Thesis

    Preparation of the thesis. Graded Credit/No Credit. Enrollment Restriction: Approved thesis proposal, and completion of eighteen (18) units in the graduate program. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of thesis advisor.

  • PSYC 700A (1) 700B (2) 700C (3) Thesis Extension

    Registration in this course is limited to students who have received a grade of Report in Progress (RP) in PSYC 699. May be repeated. Graded Credit/No Credit. Enrollment Requirement: Prior registration in PSYC 699 with an assigned grade of Report in Progress (RP).

  • Unformatted text preview: Attachment Style and Relationships 1 Running Head: ATTACHMENT STYLE AND RELATIONSHIPS Attachment Style and Relationships Yahaira Sosa-cruz Axia College PSY 220 Attachment Style and Relationships 2 Attachment Style and Relationships Love is a universal language. Though spoken differently, many people will agree that love is a central element in their life; most people either give love or receive it. It is undeniable that most people want love, need to be loved, and aspire for some form of romantic love. According to Bolt (2004), psychologist Robert Sternberg developed a triangular love theory based on the three components of love—passion, intimacy, and commitment. Passion is guided by lust, sexual desire, and attraction. Intimacy is feeling close to someone, connecting with that person emotionally, and being able to divulge personal thoughts and feelings to one’s partner. Commitment is being loyal, devoted, and deciding to remain with that person for a long period of time. Any kind of healthy love from childhood helps mold people into individuals who are capable of forming secure attachments as they grow older and enter relationships. However, most people dream of consummate love making it almost a human universal, with the exception of a few societies. The great poet Robert Frost said it best when he explained that “love is an irresistible desire to be irresistibly desire” (Knox and Schacht, 2008, p. 86). The Dimensions of Love As previously mentioned, Sternberg identified three major dimensions of love he labeled passion, intimacy, and commitment. Consummate love is the combination of all three. It is the perfect love that most people yearn for and work towards because it is the ideal love. Different love relationships are formed when only one element is present or when only two elements combine to form a specific kind of love. According to Knox and Schacht (2008), Sternberg’s theory discovered eight different kinds of love, including nonlove, liking, infatuation, romantic love, companionate love, fatuous love, empty love, and of course consummate love. Attachment Style and Relationships 3 Different Love Relationships The first kind of love is nonlove, which is a lack of passion, intimacy, and companionship. An example of nonlove would be two strangers passing glances from a distance (Knox and Schacht, 2008). Liking is a relationship between new friends because it is intimate, but without passion or commitment. Infatuation is passion (i.e., flirtation) without commitment or intimacy. Romantic love is intimate and passionate love, without any commitment such as “love at first sight” (Knox & Schacht, 2008, p. 75). Empty love lacks passion or intimacy; partners are only deeply committed to each other, such as a couple who stay married to raise their children until they are adults. Companionate love is characterized as love with intimacy and commitment, but without passion, such as a couple who has been married for 40 years. Fatuous love is passion and commitment without any intimacy. Consummate love has already been discussed. Love Styles There are also different love styles influenced by the different kinds of love. Lovers relate to each other in different ways, modeling the kind of love relationship that they are in. Some common love styles include: ludus, pragma, eros, mania, storge, and agape. According to Knox and Schacht (2008), ludic lovers are seen as being uncompassionate manipulators because “the ludic lover views love as a game, refuses to become dependent on any one person, and does not encourage another’s intimacy” (p. 77). The ludic lover would be practitioners of infatuation or romantic love. Another kind of lover is a pragmatic lover, a person who is “logical and rational” (Knox and Schacht, 2008, p. 77) about love. A pragmatic lover is selective about his or her choices in love and makes decisions that emphasize a stable relationship. There may be many kinds of love Attachment Style and Relationships 4 that could be practiced by pragmatic lovers, but wanting stability and using rationality to stay in a relationship characterizes a companionate or a fatuous love. Erotic lovers are passionate and romantic. They exhibit strong feelings of emotional and sexual feelings. Erotic lovers mostly engage in romantic love, valuing passion and intimacy in their relationships. The storge love style reflects love that is devoid of passion and sex. This love is characterized by feelings of “respect, friendship, commitment, and familiarity” (Knox and Schacht, 2008, p. 78). Partners are committed to each other and are not chasing lust or romance. This love style draws a parallel to companionate love, but can also describe empty love. Agape is characterized by caring, understanding love fostered by selflessness. This kind of love is the closest to consummate love shown by married couples. Attachment Style Influenced by Love People learn to form attachments beginning in infancy and childhood. The kinds of attachments individuals learn to form are the kinds of attachment that are reflected in their love relationships. Bolt (2004) explains that there are three kinds of attachment styles including secure, avoidant, and anxious attachments. Children who have secure attachments “experience warm, responsive parents” (Bolt, 2004, p. 23), while children with avoidant attachment styles have cold and unresponsive parents who do not foster loving relationships with their children. Children with anxious attachment styles receive “inconsistent parenting” (Bolt, 2004, p. 23), so they often have a love-hate relationship with their parents. Attachment styles from infancy shape how people handle romantic relationships later on in life. Individuals who experience secure attachments in childhood are independent lovers who are able to be trustworthy, open, and honest. They are secure in their relationships and are able to Attachment Style and Relationships 5 be supportive of their partners, making it easier for their relationship to last longer because they know how to overcome trials in their relationship. Alternatively, people who have developed avoidant attachments are only invested short-term in their relationship. Bolt explains that people with an avoidant attachment style tend to have relationships that are an emotional rollercoaster, characterized by “emotional highs and lows” (p. 24). They have brief relationships characterized by lust and infatuation, unlike individuals who have secure attachments marked by maturity and enduring love. Individuals with anxious attachment styles have the most difficulty in their relationships. Bolt (2004) explains that they are insecure, jealous, and distrustful; “love is obsession” (p. 25) to these kinds of lovers. Anxious attachment style lovers never formed the parental bond necessary to know how to cope with love and the characteristics necessary to form loving relationships. Their relationships tend to be short-lived. Developing Attachment: Care, Closeness, and Commitment Bolt (2004) explains that attachment is fostered by three components: closeness, care, and commitment. Both adults and infants need to feel a sense of closeness. According to Bolt (2004), in infant relationships, babies need closeness to feel a sense of security, while adults need it for physical chemistry, but in “both types of relationships, close physical contact foster an emotional bond” (p. 25). Also, both children and adults enjoy physical contact, both are saddened when they are removed from their loved one, and both overjoyed and thrilled when the person they love returns (Bolt, 2004). Care is the second component that helps develop attachment. Care is providing comfort and support for our loved ones to show them how important they are to us. Care is an indicator of Attachment Style and Relationships 6 a long-term relationship because being sensitive and responsive are important traits that shows us how the person we love feels about us (Bolt, 2004). Commitment is the last component that helps people foster secure attachments. Commitment begins in infancy because children learn commitment from the bond they form with their parents and the commitment that their parents have for them. As people become older and enter romantic relationships, commitment is fostered in meaningful romantic relationships. Commitment takes times to build in a relationship. Cindy Hazan and Philip Shaver (1994 as cited in Bolt, 2004) explain that commitment is the bond that keeps relationships together, guaranteeing safety and security over a long period of time. It is undeniable that the kind of attachments we form sets the stage for our future intimate relationships. However, it is important to note that attachment styles can change as we grow older and become more experienced in our relationships. Bolt (2004) explains that when our attachments change, it is more likely to develop positively and change from being insecure to secure attachments. Attachment styles can evolve, not only based on human willingness to change them, but also based on how biology and the environment interact. People will always have some control over how much they can produce change because humans are capable of determining the course of their lives and making better decisions after learning from past mistakes. Biology and nurture play a major role in helping us develop and improve our relationships. Bolt (2004) explains that “both nature and nurture are crucial factors in shaping attachment style, and our patterns of relating can change” (p. 26). Reviewing Love and Attachments Love serves undeniable importance in all people’s lives. It is a universal language. According to famed psychologist Robert Sternberg, most people try to achieve consummate love Attachment Style and Relationships 7 in their relationships fostered by closeness, care, and commitment formed by secure attachments. Although all attachments are not secure, we are capable of changing them overtime as we go through relationships and learn how to become better communicators, lovers, and partners. An important part of life is finding any love that is unbreakable and can stand the test of time. Healthy love takes many forms and makes us better people. Therefore, fostering it requires knowing how to open the heart, the mind, and the soul, and allowing it to happen without asking any questions or passing any judgments. Attachment Style and Relationships 8 References: Bolt, M. (2004). Pursuing human strengths: A positive psychology guide. NY: Worth Publishing. Knox, D., & Schacht, C., (2008). Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family (9th ed.) Canada: Wadsworth ...
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